Deepest Hole in the World
What You Will Find
We have a great story here on the deepest hole in the world & also below is a video explaining what all went on during this journey to the center of the Earth..
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The Kola Superdeep Borehole (Russian: Кольская сверхглубокая скважина) is the result of a scientific drilling project of the Soviet Union in the Pechengsky District, on the Kola Peninsula. The project attempted to drill as deep as possible into the Earth’s crust.
Drilling began on 24 May 1970 using the Uralmash-4E Rig, and later the Uralmash-15000 series drilling rig. Boreholes were drilled by branching from a central hole. The deepest, SG-3, reached 12,262 metres (40,230 ft) in 1989 and is the deepest artificial point on Earth. As of September 2018. The borehole is 23 centimeters (9 in) in diameter.
True Vertical Depth
In terms of true vertical depth, it is the deepest borehole in the world. For two decades it was also the world’s longest borehole in terms of measured depth along the well bore. Finally it was surpassed in 2008 by the 12,289-meter-long (40,318 ft) Al Shaheen oil well in Qatar. Then again in 2011 by the 12,345-meter-long (40,502 ft) Sakhalin-I Odoptu OP-11 Well (offshore from the Russian island of Sakhalin).
A target depth was set at 15,000 m (49,000 ft). On 6 June 1979, the world depth record held by the Bertha Rogers hole in Washita County, Oklahoma, United States, at 9,583 m (31,440 ft) was broken. In 1983, the drill passed 12,000 m (39,000 ft). During this year drilling was stopped as numerous scientific and celebratory visits were brought to this site.
This idle period may have contributed to a breakdown on 27 September 1984: after drilling to 12,066 m (39,587 ft), a 5,000 m (16,000 ft) section of the drill string twisted off and was left in the hole.
Drilling was later restarted from 7,000 m (23,000 ft).
Hotter Than Expected
Drilling this hole they had reached 12,262 m (40,230 ft) in 1989. During that year, the hole depth was expected to reach 13,500 m (44,300 ft) by the end of 1990 and 15,000 m (49,000 ft) by 1993.
Because of higher-than-expected temperatures at this depth and location, 180 °C (356 °F). It was expected to be around 100 °C (212 °F). At this point drilling deeper was deemed unfeasible and ultimately drilling was stopped in 1992.
Baltic Shield Penetrated
The Kola borehole penetrated about a third of the way through the Baltic Shield continental crust,. It was estimated to be around 35 kilometers (22 mi) deep, reaching Archaean rocks at the bottom. The project has been a site of extensive geophysical studies.
The stated areas of study were the deep structure of the Baltic Shield, seismic discontinuities and the thermal regime in the Earth’s crust,. The physical and chemical composition of the deep crust and the transition from upper to lower crust, lithospheric geophysics, and to create and develop technologies for deep geophysical study.
Mineral Rich Water Found
To scientists, one of the more fascinating findings to emerge from this well is that no transition from granite to basalt was found at the depth of about 7 km (4.3 mi), where the velocity of seismic waves has a discontinuity.
Instead the change in the seismic wave velocity is caused by a metamorphic transition in the granite rock. In addition, the rock at that depth had been thoroughly fractured and was saturated with water, which was surprising. This water, unlike surface water, must have come from deep-crust minerals and had been unable to reach the surface because of a layer of impermeable rock.
H2S & Fossils Encountered
When studying samples the scientists came across microscopic plankton fossils that were found 6 kilometers (4 mi) below the surface.
The project ended in 1995 due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The site has since been abandoned, and is now an environmental hazard. The ruins of the site, however, are frequently visited by curious sightseers.
Would you check it out if in the area? Leave a comment below in the comment section at bottom of the page.
The Kola Superdeep Borehole was the longest and deepest borehole in the world for nearly 20 years. In May 2008, a new record for borehole length was established by the extended-reach drilling (ERD) well BD-04A, which was drilled by Transocean for Maersk Oil in the Al Shaheen Oil Field in Qatar. This well was drilled to 12,289 m (40,318 ft). It held a record with a total horizontal reach of 10,902 m (35,768 ft) in only 36 days.
How This Hole Stacks Up
On 28 January 2011, Exxon Neftegas Ltd., operator of the Sakhalin-I project, drilled the world’s longest extended-reach well offshore on the Russian island of Sakhalin.
It has surpassed the length of both the Al Shaheen well and the Kola borehole. The Odoptu OP-11 well reached a measured total length of 12,345 m (40,502 ft) and a horizontal displacement of 11,475 m (37,648 ft). Exxon Neftegas completed the well in 60 days.
On 27 August 2012, Exxon Neftegas Ltd beat its own record by completing the Z-44 Chayvo well. This ERD well reached a measured total length of 12,376 metres (40,604 ft).
In terms of depth below the surface, the Kola Superdeep Borehole SG-3 retains the world record at 12,262 metres (40,230 ft) in 1989 and is still the deepest artificial point on Earth.